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Empowered Communities (2015),


Communities: empowered peoples:

design report

, p. 22, accessible at

http:// Report.pdf



KPMG (2015),

Impact evaluation of Jawun


unpublished report. An executive summary is

accessible at uploads/2016/04/Jawun-Executive-Summary- Extract-REVISED-8Dec15.pdf



KPMG (2015),

Impact evaluation of Jawun:

executive summary

, p. 1.


Michael Porter and Mark Kramer (2011), ‘Creating

shared value’,

Harvard Business Review

, 89(1/2),

pp. 62–77.


Noel Pearson (2000), O

ur right to take


, Cairns: Noel Pearson and



Jawun (2015),

A story of shared value: corporate

and government partners

, 2015 Learnings and

Insights report, accessible at




Empowered Communities (2015), op. cit., p. 11.

See also Ruth Alsop, Mette Bertelsen and Jeremy

Holland (2005),

Empowerment in practice: from

analysis to implementation

, Washington DC:

World Bank.


Anne-Emmanuèle Calvès (2009), ‘Empowerment:

the history of a key concept in contemporary

development discourse’,

Revue Tiers Monde


200(4), pp. 735–49.


Harvard Project on American Indian Economic

Development (n.d.), ‘What works, where, and

why?’, accessible at overview

(viewed 19 September 2017).

10. Empowered Communities (2015), op. cit., p. 13.

11. Forms of Indigenous leadership can be classed as

natural leadership, cultural leadership, educated

leadership and organisational leadership. See

Empowered Communities (2015), op. cit., p. 36.

12. Karina Qian (2013),

Jawun impact review


unpublished report, p. 5.

13. KPMG (2015),

Impact evaluation of Jawun


unpublished report, p. 71.

14. National Indigenous Television (NITV)

(2016), ‘Meet the Yolngu heroes of 2016’,

30 July, accessible at article/2016/07/30/meet-yolngu-heroes-2016 (viewed 19 September 201


15. In the Empowered Communities design report

(p. 7), Indigenous leaders use this metaphor to

describe disempowerment of the Indigenous

‘mouse’—with a 3% stake in the population—

when dealing with the government ‘elephant’,

who stands largely for the other 97%.

16. Jawun (2017),

Baseline impact evaluation of

Emerging Leaders program participants

, internal

report, unpublished, p. 3.

17. Ibid.

18. Miwatj-run Yirrkala Clinic, for example, in the

years since Miwatj took over its management

from the Northern Territory Department of

Health, saw a steady increase in ‘episodes of

care’, an indicator used as proxy for accessibility

in a region where community perceptions of the

cultural inappropriateness of social services are a

significant challenge and barrier.

19. KPMG (2015),

Impact evaluation of Jawun


unpublished report, p. 23.

20. Lowell Bryan (2008), ‘Enduring ideas: the 7-S


McKinsey Quarterly

, 1(2008), pp.

112–112, accessible at insights/strategy/enduring_ideas_the_7-s_ framework.

21. Figures from the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics

and Research comparing 2008 (the year before

the program started) and 2014 (the most recent

available statistics).

22. Australian Bureau of Statistics (2016),


in Australia

, 2016, cat. no. 4517.0, accessible

at Lookup/by%20Subject/4517.0~2016~Main%20 Features~Aboriginal%20and%20Torres%20 Strait%20Islander%20prisoner%20 characteristics~5


23. Australian Institute of Criminology (n.d.), ‘2016

Australian Crime and Violence Prevention

Awards’, accessible at crime_community/acvpa/2016.html


19 September 2017).

24. Indigenous enterprise is a key driver of Indigenous

employment, with Indigenous businesses

considered ‘100 times more likely to hire

Indigenous Australians than non-Indigenous

businesses’. See KPMG (2016),

Igniting the

Indigenous economy

, October, p. 3, accessible

at insights/2016/10/igniting-indigenous-economy. html


25. Indigenous entrepreneurialism has been

accelerated through the Commonwealth’s

Indigenous Procurement Policy, which increased

the government’s expenditure on goods and

services provided by Indigenous businesses

from $6 million to $156 million in less than a

year. As reported in the eighth annual analysis

by the Office of the Registrar of Indigenous

Corporations, the combined income of the

top 500 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

corporations had jumped 250% from 2004–05

levels. Cited by Craig Emerson and Marcia

Langton in KPMG (2016),

Igniting the Indigenous


, p. 10.

26. James Mabbott and Eddie Fry in KPMG (2016),

Igniting the Indigenous economy

, p. 13.

27. Ibid., p. 14.

28. Ngarrindjeri Regional Authority (2016),

‘Fulton Hogan partnership—signing of Kungun

Ngarrindjeri Yunnan Agreement’, 21 June,

accessible at au/single-post/2016/06/22/Fultan-Hogan- Partnership-Signing-of-Kungun-Ngarrindjeri- Yunnan-Agreement

(viewed 19 September 2017).